Read These Five Papers to Understand Thaler’s Nobel-Winning Work

People act irrationally, a fact economists long dismissed. Richard Thaler, win of the 2017 Nobel prize in economics, has made a career of fixing that oversight.

In research that’s typically quirky, often funny, infused with pop-culture and written for a lay audience, Thaler of the University of Chicago has built the suit that human decisions are shaped by social context, expectation and temptation — not cold rationality.

Here, we run down some of his greatest reaches, a body of work that on Monday lifted Thaler to the pinnacle of economics.

1. Nudge

Thaler co-wrote the 2008 global bestseller Nudge with former White House adviser Cass Sunstein, a law professor at Harvard University and a Bloomberg View columnist. In it, the authors investigate why people induce the choices they do, looking at biases and the limits of human reason. In it, they attain the suit that while humans often make choices that don’t result in their longer-term well-being — for example, feeing unhealthy foods that lead to obesity — society can drive better decisions via “choice architecture, ” or by better coordinating the context in which people make decisions. To exemplify, they use the example of an actual designer. “As good designers know, apparently arbitrary decisions, such as where to locate the bathrooms, will have subtle influences on how the people who use the building interact, ” they write in their introduction.” A good house is not merely attractive; it also’ works .”‘

This book is an especially important part of Thaler’s repertoire because it’s influenced the Conservative government in the U.K. and U.S. Democrats.

Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness
Published 2008
Available on Amazon

2. Deal or No Deal?

Thaler and his co-authors show that Tv game show contestants construct so-called path-dependent choices in this paper: what happened earlier in the show influences how they behave as the program progress. In the game show, various sums of money have been allocated to 26 briefcases, and as the demonstrate progresses — as briefcases are opened, disclosing the sums within — she has the option to take a deal to walk away or continue to play, risking losing out in exchange for the chance at a bigger reward. They find that risk tolerance in later rounds varies widely among contestants, but it’s restriction among those who do poorly( eradicating high-value briefcases) or those who get lucky( opening low-value briefcases) early on in the game.” The relatively low risk revulsion of losers and winners is hard to explain with expected utility hypothesi and phases in the direction of reference-dependent option theories ,” the authors write.

Deal or No Deal? Decision Inducing Under Risk in a Large-Payoff Game Show
Published 2008
Available on Thaler’s website

3. Save More Tomorrow

Thaler proposed a prescriptive life savings program in this paper with the University of California at Los Angeles’ Shlomo Benartzi. The idea is that at least some low-saving employees with defined contribution plans are making a mistake and would be better off saving more, so if they committed in advance to allocating a portion of their own future salary increases toward retirement savings, they would wind up better off. Their experiment with the program at a midsize manufacturing company returned some encouraging results. About 78 percent of those offered the program joined, about 80 percent of those participants stuck with it through four pay raises, and that groups’ median savings rate climbed to 13.6 percentage from 3.5 percentage over 40 months.

This paper is important because it brings a real-world experiment to bear on one of Thaler’s big ideas:” libertarian paternalism.” The notion is that society should design institutions that help people to make better decisions, but without impinging their liberty to choose.

Save More Tomorrow: Utilizing Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving
Published 2004
Available on Thaler’s Chicago Booth faculty webpage

4. The Loser’s Curse

Thaler and co-author Cade Massey investigated American football teams’ player draft decisions in this paper, concluding that top draft pickings are consistently overvalued.” Rather than a gem, the right to picking first looks just like a curse, ” the duo writes. Buying expensive players, even very good ones, results in opportunity costs lower on the roster — squads might have to pass on other players that would, together, result in better teams down the road. “The irony of our results is that the supposed benefit bestowed on the worst squad in the league, the human rights of pick first in the draft, is only a benefit if the team trades it away, ” they wrote in the 2010 version.

The Loser’s Curse: Overconfidence vs Market Efficiency in the NFL Draft
Published 2010( this version)
Available at Management Science website

5. Misbehaving

In his 2015 book, a memoir-cum-manifesto, Thaler clearly states the main points of his career-long argument: economics needs to take human behavior into account. People give into biases when making decisions, and that human miscalculation can come with serious consequences. Both economic forecasters and policy-setting governments need to take the fact that performers are human into account, he argues. “The primary reason for adding Human to economic hypothesis is to improve the accuracy of the predictions built with those hypothesis ,” he writes, quipping that behavioral economics comes with the added benefit of being more interesting and more fun.” It is the un-dismal science .”

Misbehaving: The Story of Behavioral Economics
Published 2015
Available on Amazon

Edina chiropractor convicted of fraud; recruited accident victims to bilk auto insurers, prosecutors say – Press Press

Edina chiropractor convicted of fraud; recruited accident victims to bilk auto insurers, prosecutors say Press
Adam John Burke, 33, “used his professional position and private medical practice to perpetrate an egregious fraud scheme that cost automobile insurers and, ultimately, policyholders in Minnesota, millions of dollars,” said David Maria, the Assistant U

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Protein powder pros and cons: What to know, what to watch out for

( CNN) Protein powders are expected to be a $7.5 billion industry by 2020, and the products are popular for a wide variety of reasons: Vegetarians might feel that their diets are somewhat absence, athletes may want to add muscle faster or aim for a competitive edge, and still others might be looking for a quick dinner that isn’t dripping with grease.

And there’s an equally broad various forms of products on the market. Here’s what you should know about protein powders.

Protein is an important building block for muscle as well as hair, skin and fingernails. Powders are dehydrated sorts from sources such as milk, soy or plants. They’re typically mixed with water or other liquors, or they can be added to foods to boost protein content.

Ghosting on Freud: why breaking up with a therapist is so tricky

The therapist-client relationship is an intimate one and yet we often end them abruptly or simply drop off. Alana Massey learns about a different kind of breakup

My last therapist always told me that if I was deeming objective our sessions, we would need to talk about it for at least four sessions before deciding. But when I decided to walk away, I didnt give him any warn. After what I felt was an unprofessional response to a traumatic life event, I canceled my stand appointment through the reception desk and never went back. But I never look back and regret the route I unceremoniously cut ties with my therapist through a proxy, and I certainly dont regret that I didnt devote it four to six conferences worth of thought. And when it comes to disregarding the impressions of my therapist in the termination phase, I am scarcely alone.

The language people use around discontinuing therapy is say. Some call it breaking up, others refer to having ghosted a term most often used to describe the phenomenon of a romantic interest falling off the radar without notice. This is not the same speech we use for our yoga teachers or our gastroenterologists it is the language we reserve for our most intimate relationships. And yet, when it comes to ending this special relationship, we dont treat it with the same thoughtfulness or care that we would to a romantic interest or friend. We often left open without notice, abruptly stop scheduling appointments without explanation. But why?

Perhaps it is the asymmetrical intimacy embedded in the therapist-client relationship that allows us to cut it off so abruptly. While we lay out our thoughts, dreads and impressions during our hourlong sessions, the therapist remains a non-judgmental listener and hopefully, a facilitator of self-understanding and healing. Part of the appeal of going to therapy is that patients are allowed to be selfish in the relationship.

The whole point of having a therapist is not being emotionally invested in them,[ and] they arent emotionally invested in you if theyre doing their chore right, said Olivia, a 28 -year-old woman from Seattle, who has ended three of her relationships with her therapists by ghosting. Therapy is a paid service. For me, it was a business transaction that I aimed and didnt feel an obligation to continue any further, she added.

Therapists are professionals, of course, but they are also human. Having conferences terminated without rationale from patients can be emotional, causing doubt that they are doing their chore well. One therapist ran in so far as to refer to having conferences terminated without notice as abandoning me. Most, however, were not devastated by abandonment so much as they were disoriented by the jarring lack of resolution. Im not going to be a fit for everyone. Im aware of this. I prefer to have an upfront dialogue for close and growth for both my client and myself, said Kelley Kitley, a psychotherapist in Chicago.

Our desire to protect our therapists from hurt impressions or to avoid confronting the circumstances that attain us stop wanting to attend conferences makes it easier to merely walk away. Sure, the relationship is intimate, but therapists are service providers who have the cushion of several other patients to cushion the blow, we reason.

Trina, a university student from California, was assigned to five mandatory therapy conferences during which discussion of not returning wasnt an option, but when her last conference came, she could not bringing herself to officially break it off with the therapist. I implied that I would be making another appointment. I guess I lied to avoid hurting her feelings or causing conflict. She seemed to think she was helping me, and I wanted her to think she was doing her undertaking right, she explains.

We leave our therapists for all sorts of reasons: we no longer feel we need them, we feel they lack a certain investment or emotional connection to us or, in some cases, that they are failing to provide the help we need. Diamond, a 27 -year-old woman in New York, did not give notice that she wasnt planning to return when she was facing a mental health crisis. I had been dealing with serious suicidal ideation and the therapist didnt pick up on the warning signs. I never went back. I hospitalized myself and then got a new therapist, she said. When I left my own therapist, my priority was procuring a new source of help and mending to get through trauma. His feelings were not just irrelevant to me they were completely off my radar.

Carole Lieberman, a psychiatrist in California, said that patients need to take on some responsibility in letting therapists know when things arent working out. Patients need to come for at least one more conference when they are thinking of breaking up with their therapist. Oftentimes, the therapist can resolve a misunderstanding that occurred, or help them to understand why its important in order to be allowed to delve into their past. Even if the patient still decides to leave, they will do so with more insight into themselves and with an open door to return.

But this expectation demands a great deal, too. Is it truly the job of the patient to offer tips and tricks on how the therapist can improve their approach, especially if the patient is already in a vulnerable or wounded country? Therapists who expect everyone to be experts at the therapeutic process are going to miss or dismiss the patients who need therapy the most.

Surprisingly, the therapists with the most perspective on the issue were those whose patients discontinued most often: therapists treating patients who had court-mandated conferences. I spent lots of day worrying about what I could have done better to ensure their commitment to me. Having breakups led me to do research on the best available treatments, said Deanna F Omoniyi, founder and lead therapist at Kalamazoo Empowerment Services, which serves populations who are navigating the criminal justice system. Instead of hoping for her patients to tell her how to improve, she proactively sought professional enrichment that would maximize therapeutic results. It push things to attend trains and seminars to better meet the demands of the people I serve. So the first breakups of my career actually pushed me to be better.

Because therapy is a critical and even life-saving service for so many people, we have exceptionally high expectations for therapists to execute their role perfectly every time. But all therapists are not going to be well-suited to all patients. Where one patient requires aggressive excavation of their interior life, another requires a gentler approach. In an ideal scenario, we would all approach our therapists with well-articulated, thoughtful reasons for discontinuing therapy, and both proportion styles the better for it. But if any of us were in such ideal scenarios, what on Ground would we be in therapy for?

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25 Promises You Should Attain To Yourself Today For A Better Tomorrow

Of all the promises we make, the most important point ones will be the promises we induce to ourselves and how we plan on to be maintained. Here are 25 promises you should build to yourself today 😛 TAGEND

1. Promise yourself to accept who you are now until you work on being the best possible version of yourself.

2. Promise yourself to let love in when it knocks on your door no matter how many times youve been hurt before. Promise yourself to let loveheal you.

3. Promise yourself to walk away from the relationship you dont deserve.

4. Promise yourself to leave a place you dont belong in: a task, a country, an apartment…just leave.

5. Promise yourself to appreciate your friends and your family and everyone you love and show them how much they mean to you.

6. Promise yourself to forgive yourself for your past mistakes and failures and start over with a solid heart.

7. Promise yourself to be kinder to yourself and give yourself thesameamount of support you would give others.

8. Promise yourself to do more of what makes you happy, even if you have to do it alone.

9. Promise yourself to tell person how you really feel about them if they cant construct you sleep at night.

10. Promise yourself to try harder to do what you love and turn your life around.

11. Promise yourself to let the toxic people in your life go.

12. Promise yourself to let the toxic supposes in your intellect go.

13. Promise yourself to be a lot more spontaneous and a litttle less calculated.

14. Promise yourself to live a life that feelings right to you not anyone else.

15. Promise yourself to find something good in every painful experience.

16. Promise yourself to find happiness in the smaller things in life.

17. Promise yourself to take good care of your body and take good care of your mind.

18. Promise yourself to forget whats behind you and start appreciating whats in front of you.

19. Promise yourself to stop comparing their own lives to others.

20. Promise yourself to listen to your intestine when it advises you about something.

21. Promise yourself to help someone when they need you.

22. Promise yourself topick your battles wisely.

23. Promise yourself to start facing your fears.

24. Promise yourself to start believing in miracles.

25. Promiseyourselfto keep as much of these promises as you can.

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A different kind of tea party: how US farmers are brewing up a new industry

Unchon Ramos has kickstarted an American tea farming revolution right from her farm in Virginia but growers say the industry is still in the wild west stage of development

As a girl growing up in South Korea, Unchon Ramos remembers her mom would always give her green tea to drink at bedtime when she didnt feel well.

And when she washed my hair, she always put a couple green tea leaves in the water, Ramos said.

Slowly, she learned about green teas many benefits: that its loaded with antioxidants, which avoid cells in the body from deteriorating, and that it can improve brain function and boost immune system functionality. Green tea is also high in flavonoids, associated with reducing cardiovascular disease and avoiding cancer. A analyse in 2007 by the US Department of Agriculture found that a single cup of brewed green tea has seven times more flavonoids than brewed black tea, nine times more than a single apple, and nearly five times more than a glass of wine.

So when Ramos and her husband, Louis, decided to buy a rundown old farm in Virginia in 2012, it didnt take her long to choose what to grow. But local farmers told her Virginia is not the various kinds of place to grow tea. My hometown is the same climate as Virginia, and theyre growing tea, so I supposed: Im going to try anyway.

Ramos now operates Virginia First Tea Farm, which sells soap, shampoo, dish soap and laundry cleanser, all infused with green tea grown on an 80 -acre farm in Spotsylania, Virginia. This year, building on a thriving mail-order business, the familys products became available at eight Whole Food Market in Virginia and Washington, DC. Next, Ramos wants to process green tea for drinking.

Unchon Ramos with a showing of Virginia First Tea Farm products at a Whole Foods store in Newport News, Virginia. Photograph: Joanna Ramos

Brewing a local industry

Although tea growing has a millennia-long history in Asia, it has virtually none in the US. There are only about 30 established farms in the US growing Camellia sinensis , the shrub from which all tea assortments are rendered, according to the US League of Tea Growers. Although that number is small, it has tripled since 2011. Approximately an equal number of farms grow tea in Hawaii, where the climate is more accommodating. ( Camellia sinensis is sensitive to harsh climate and soil conditions .)

Rie Tulali, spokeswoman for the US League of Tea Growers, attributed the growth to people who simply like tea. More than half of all Americans drink tea daily, according to a report by the Tea Association of the USA. That intake is growing about 5% annually, and the US is the only Western country experiencing growth. Also, that increase is coming entirely in the arena of specialty loose-leaf teas, while familiar pouched tea sales remain flat.

Tea parlors and cafes have an increased presence in major cities throughout the US, as do commercial tea shops like T2 and Les Palais des Thes, which sells loose leaf teas in dozens of ranges from around the world. Even Starbucks is entering video games. In 2012, it purchased Teavana, a US chain of 300 specialty tea retailers, for $670 million, its largest acquisition ever.

People really are concerned about their food sources and what their carbon footprint is, said Judson LeCompte, a research associate in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at Mississippi State University, home to one of the nations largest tea research programs. So if they can get a locally produced product, thats much more appealing and theyre willing to pay for it. That dedicates our products a niche market they can fit into.

But, while the opportunity for American farmers who want to experiment with tea is grow, there are significant obstacles.

Its still kind of in this wild west stage of developing, where no one has really figured out the model for growing tea yet, Tulali says. Even if anyone figures it out in Mississippi, its a completely different tale in the Pacific Northwest, or California, or Maine because the environments are so different.

For example, a single region of China may have 300 tea assortments, or genetic cultivars, that have been bred over centuries to tolerate particular clay conditions and local weather extremes. In all of the US, Tulali says, there are still only 3 or four cultivars.

One lure for American farmers is that tea growing presents few barriers to entry. Although learning to grow and process tea can be challenging, a lucrative crop can be raised on very small plots of land. A grower can plant 6,000 tea shrubs on a single acre of land for about $20,000, LeCompte said. That might be 20 times the cost to plant an acre of corn, but the corn is necessary replanted annually. Tea shrubs will create for hundreds of years, and ultimately yield specialty loose-leaf teas that might sell for $30 an ounce or more 10 times the price of a familiar box of Lipton tea containers found in every grocery store.

Even so, LeCompte said US tea growers are not likely to ever threatened the dominance of their counterparts in Asia.

Out of the billions of servings that we import a year, we would be fortunate to produce 1% of that, he says. But I do think China and other countries have something to learn from us. And I think we have so much to learn from them.

The Virginia First Tea Farm property near Spotsylvania, Va. Photograph: Joanna Ramos

Learning from the masters

Both green tea and black tea come from Camellia sinensis . The discrepancies between the teas comes in the processing. Black tea is allowed to oxidize after harvest before being dried. This creates a stronger flavor and transforms the leaves with a dark brown color. Green tea is heated through steaming or pan firing, which avoids oxidation. As a outcome, the foliages remain green and have a more delicate, fresh flavor.

At first we were, like, This sounds really difficult, says Joanna Ramos, Unchons daughter and a co-owner of the business. Its very experimental, its still in its infancy, but its running good in so far. We are able to get enough green tea be utilized for our soaps.

Virginia First grows the tea plants employing organic methods, although the company is still working to obtain official organic certification. Weeds are pulled by hand, and no chemical pesticides or fertilizers are used.

Tulali says most US tea growers is still not utilizing organic techniques, because they are focused on producing a viable crop from the finicky plant and seeing a viable market for teas that are relatively new and expensive in the US market. US growers are still experimenting with their plant material and sharpening their craft, Tulali says. But what they do have as a benefit is their farms are typically very small, so the government had better quality control over the plenties they do have.

When Ramos launched her business, she made more than 10 trip-ups to her home region of Kumsan, South Korea, to examine tea growing. She brought back tea seeds and a Korean recipe for green tea soap. Her spouse, Louis, supervises farm operations after retiring from a career in the US Air Force.

While many soaps use animal products like milk and glycerin( often made from animal fat ), and fillers such as gluten, the Ramos family sticks to basic ingredients that are sourced locally whenever possible. For example, some of their products include cucumber and dried berries, which are obtained form local organic farms.

A batch of tea leaves and other ingredients being brewed to build Virginia First Tea Farm shampoo and conditioner. Photograph: Joanna Ramos

The family began selling soaps by word-of-mouth and at local farmers markets in the Williamsburg, Virginia, region. Slowly, local natural food markets agreed to carry their products. This year, seven Whole Foods Markets became distributors.

They are extremely popular, says Morgan Franklin, deputy director of Rebeccas Natural Foods in Charlottesville, Virginia, and one of the first stores to offer Virginia First Tea Farm products.

Unchon says the soaps are made by mixing in a powder from crushed tea leaves. The farm also sells matcha( a powdered green tea liquor) made from tea imported from Korea.

Green tea soaps are comparatively common in groceries that focus on selling healthy products, but most are imported. Joanna says as far as she knows, her familys company is the only one in the US that sells green tea soaps made from tea leaves also grown in the US.

Next, Unchon wants to start selling tea for drinking. But first, the family must acquire facilities for drying and roasting the leaves. Unchon hopes the first tea products for drinking will be produced early next year.

Were not trying to be in every supermarket, because that would just be a ridiculous standard to keep up our quality, Joanna says. The goal is to be able to keep our quality up and not worry about quantity.

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22 Springtime Recipes You Require To Cook ASAP

There might still be snow on the ground where you live, but regardless of that fact springtime are formally arrived. Whether or not you’re seeing the physical signs of fresh buds on the trees, the fact is that wintertime is OVER. Say it with we are currently: Hallelujah.

With that seasonal transition comes all the wonderful recipes that spring makes possible thanks to the plethora of fresh make making the markets. Eventually. Asparagus, artichokes, ramps, peas — say goodbye to the monochromatic colourings of winter’s root veggies and welcome a pop of green on your plate( and red, thanks to spring’s darling offering, rhubarb ).

Folks, eat all these dishes now because you ultimately can — and because it’ll be gone before you know it.

1 Spring Pasta With Blistered Tomatoes And Eggs

How Sweet It Is

Get the Spring Pasta with Blistered Tomatoes and Eggs recipe from How Sweet It Is

2 Blood Orange Asparagus Salad With Ginger Miso Dressing

Cafe Johnsonia

Get the Blood Orange Asparagus Salad with Ginger Miso Dressing recipe from Cafe Johnsonia

3 Rustic Rhubarb, Almond And Honey Tart

The Bojon Gourmet

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4 Buttermilk Ramp Biscuits

Earthy Delights

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5 Asparagus, Pea And Broccoli Rabe Over Chickpea Mash

Dolly+ Oatmeal

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6 Warm Potato Arugula Salad

Naturally Ella

Get the Warm Potato Arugula Salad recipefrom Naturally Ella

7 Deep-Dish Spinach, Leek And Bacon Quiche

Foodie Crush

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8 Barley And Asparagus Omelette

Naturally Ella

Get the Barley and Asparagus Omelette recipe from Naturally Ella

9 Gluten-Free Spring Lemon-Herb Popovers

Boulder Locavore

Get the Gluten-Free Spring Lemon-Herb Popovers recipe from Boulder Locavore

10 Rhubarb Panna Cotta Tart

Hummingbird High

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11 Spring Greens With Candied Meyer Lemons And Spicy Fried Goat Cheese

How Sweet It Is

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12 Fried Eggs With Asparagus, Ramps And Oyster Sauce

thirschfeld/ Food5 2

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13 Creamy Garlic Lemon Butter Pasta

Oh Sweet Basil

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14 Thai Red Fish Curry Noodles

Half Baked Harvest

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15 Spring Pea Crostini

What’s Gaby Cooking

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16 Roasted Artichokes With Chorizo Dressing

Foodie Crush

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17 Artichoke Soup

Simply Recipes

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18 Strawberry Rhubarb And Tarragon Tarte Tartin

Adventures in Cooking

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19 Rustic Ramp Tart

Chomping Down the Big Apple

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20 Tortellini Soup With Artichokes

Foodie Crush

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21 Ramp And Watercress Soup

Sweet Paul

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22 Lemon Ginger Asparagus With Toasted Coconut

Lemons And Basil

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We’re out of day on climate change. And Hillary Clinton helped get us here | Naomi Klein

Clintons conviction that she can get the fossil fuel companies on board is mistaken: this cant be resolved through convincing the ultra-rich to do the right thing

There arent a lot of certainties left in the US presidential race, but heres one thing about which we can be absolutely sure: the Clinton camp really doesnt like talking about fossil-fuel fund. Last week, when a young Greenpeace campaigner challenged Hillary Clinton about taking fund from fossil-fuel companies, the candidate accused the Bernie Sanders campaign of lying and declared herself so sick of it. As the exchange ran viral, a succession of high-powered Clinton advocates pronounced that there was nothing to see here and that everyone should move along.

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