Five Key Findings From 15 Years Of The International Space Station

The International Space Station is the longest-running continuously occupied human outpost in space this year it celebrated its 15 th anniversary. As the ISS orbits the Earth it is essentially in a state of free fall, counteracting the Earths gravity and an ideal platform for science in space.

Science aboard the ISS is decidedly cross-disciplinary, including fields as diverse as microbiology, space science, fundamental physics, human biology, astronomy, meteorology and Earth observation to name a few. But lets take a look at some of the biggest findings.

1. The Fragility Of The Human Body

The effects of the space surrounding on the human body during long duration spaceflight are of significant interest if we want to one day venture far beyond the Earth. A crewed journey to Mars, for example, may take a year, and the same time again for the return leg.

Astronaut Frank De Winne. NASA/ wikimedia

Microgravity research on the ISS has demonstrated that the human body would lose considerable bone and muscle mass on such a mission. Mitigation technology, involving the use of resistive exercise devices, has shown that it is possible to substantially alleviate bone and muscle loss. Coupled with other studies into appropriate nutrition and drug use, these investigations may lead to improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition affecting millions of people across the globe.

2. Interplanetary Contamination

A long-term goal of many space bureaux is to fly humans to Mars. The red planet is of particular interest because it is one of the most accessible places in which past or present extraterrestrial life may exist. It is imperative, hence, that we do not inadvertently contaminate Mars with terrestrial organisms. Likewise, we must be careful not to back-contaminate Globe with any possible Martian life forms during a sample return mission.

Tough fellow: Bacillus subtilis. Allonweiner/ wikimedia

Certain hardy bacterial spores, such as the Bacillus subtilis in the picture were exposed to space aboard the ISS, but shielded from solar UV-radiation, and demonstrated a high survival rate. The space vacuum and temperature extremes alone were not enough to kill them off. These remarkable glitches could be capable of surviving an interplanetary space flight to Mars and live there, under a thin layer of soil, were they to be accidentally deposited by a spacecraft.

This finding has huge implications; if microorganisms, or their DNA, can survive interplanetary spaceflight, albeit by natural means, it leaves open the possibility that life on Earth may originally have arrived from Mars, or elsewhere.

3. Growing Crystals For Medicine

A key challenge in developing effective medicines is understanding the shape of protein molecules in the human body. Proteins are responsible for a huge scope of biological functions, including DNA replication and digestion and protein crystallography is an essential tool for understanding protein structure. Crystal growth within a fluid on Earth is somewhat inhibited by gravity-driven convection and the settle out of denser particles at the bottom of the fluid vessel.

Crystals in a microgravity environment is a possibility grown to much larger sizes than on Earth, enabling easier analysis of their micro-structure. Protein crystals grown on the ISS are being used in the development of new drugs for cancers such as muscular dystrophy and cancer.

4. Cosmic Light And Dark Matter

Space is imbued by a constant flux of energetic charged particles called cosmic ray. When cosmic rays encounter the Earths atmosphere they disintegrate, producing a rain of secondary particles which can be detected at ground level. Some cosmic rays may emanate from explosive events such as supernovae or, closer together, flares on our own sunshine. But in many cases their source is unknown.

In order to better understand these enigmatic particles, we need to catch them before they reach the ambiance. Mounted on the ISS is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer( AMS ), the most sensitive particle detector ever launched into space. This device collects cosmic rays and measures both their energy and incoming direction.

In 2013, early outcomes showed that cosmic ray electrons and their anti-matter counterparts, positrons, emanated from all directions in space, rather than from specific locations.

Approximately one one-quarter of the mass-energy of the universe is believed to be comprised of dark matter, a substance of unknown composition, which may be a source of cosmic rays. The theorised presence of dark matter sees a halo of the material surrounding the Milky Way( and other galaxies ), and is thus supported by the isotropic nature of the cosmic ray electrons and positrons detected by AMS, basically coming at us from all directions in space.

It has never been detected directly and its true nature is one of the greatest unanswered questions in modern astrophysics.

5. Efficient Combustion

Deliberately starting a fire on an orbital space station does not audio, initially, like a good notion. It turns out, however, that the physics of flames in microgravity is quite interesting. The flame extinguishment survey is an understandably carefully designed facility whereby tiny droplets of gasoline, which form into spheres under microgravity, are ignited.

Flames on Earth assume their familiar shape because gravity-driven convection results in an updraught of air, describing the burning mixture of gasoline and gas upwards. In microgravity there is no updraught and so a flame presumes a diffuse spherical shape around the combustion source. Further, the yellow colour of a flame is produced by the incandescence of tiny soot particles. Soot sorts from incomplete burning of the fuel and is a pollutant.

In microgravity, the combustion of a ga is more complete and hence more efficient. A candle flame that would appear yellow on Earth, actually burns with a blue colour in microgravity and makes much less smoke. This kind of research enables its further consideration of soot formation processes which has negative impacts on the environment and human health, and how droplets of gasoline in a combustion engine transition from a liquid to a gas as they burn. This may one day lead to more efficient designs for combustion engines on Earth.

Gareth Dorrian, Post Doctoral Research Associate in Space Science, Lancaster University

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Man killed in Israeli security action at Palestinian hospital

Jerusalem( CNN) Undercover Israeli authorities shot and killed a Palestinian man inside a West Bank hospital Thursday, the Palestinian health minister said.

The Israel Defense Forces said in a statement that members of the military, the Israel Securities Authority and the Israeli police conducted a joint operation overnight at the Al-Ahli Hospital in Hebron to arrest a human “theyre saying” was involved in an attack October 25 in the Jewish settlement of Gush Etzion, in the West Bank.

The suspect, Azam Shalaldeh, was being treated at the hospital for injuries sustained in the raid, the IDF reported. The Israeli military said Shalaldeh’s relatives were Hamas operatives.

While the arrest process was taking place, one of Shalaldeh’s family members assaulted Israeli authorities and was shoot, in agreement with the Israel Securities Authority, which is also known as Shin Beit.

The chief spokesman of the hospital in Hebron, Abdallah Salam Abu Khalaf, told CNN that the joint Israeli undercover unit to participate in the operation was made up of 21 people.

‘This is the pop culture legacy business’: JAM Inc manages artists after demise

Jeffrey Jampol has become the go-to guy for managing boulder estates, avoiding the various kinds of legal chaos that has paralysed many legends fortunes

No one here gets out alive, as stone legend Jim Morrison once sang. But sadly for many of the rock greats it has become almost a cliche that successful musicians and groups are more valued in the grave than in life.

Few people understand that better than Jeffrey Jampol, an L-Abased specialist whose JAM Inc manages the rock estates of Otis Redding, Kurt Cobain, the Doorways, Rick James, Ramones and Muddy Waters among others, as well as advising the co-executors of Michael Jacksons estate.

With the roll call of potential names Jampol could add to his stable increasing as the grim reaper runs about his harvest in rocknroll hall of fame, Jampol says the heirs to these estates face two key challenges: how to prevent the kind of legal chaos that has paralysed many legends fortunes, like the mess that took over James Browns estate following his death in 2006, and how to protect and manage that legacy once freed of warring heirs and factions.

Jampol, who at one time helped manage New Order in the US, has become the go-to guy for this type of management. Get it right can generate a fortune.

Michael Jacksons estate is far wealthier now by virtue of the fact that the singer is not around to expend the proceeds or put a wrench in managements schemes. The King of Pop has earned more than$ 1bn before taxes since his death, according to Forbes,enough to pay off his personal debts and then some.

The same is true of the Ramones. The bands lucks suffered from a long war of attrition between Joey, the vocalist, and Johnny, the guitarist, that was carried on by their heirs long after their deaths. Jampol helped to settle grievances so that the current Ramones display at the Queens Museum in New York could take place.

This is not the music business. This is the pop culture legacy business. I tell clients, if you think its about the music, youve already failed, Jampol told the Guardian. By that logic, youd believe the magic of James Dean was his acting. It wasnt.

Merely re-issuing an artists work is not enough. Even in the case of Prince, who died intestate( without a will ), the mysterious vault said to contain hundreds of unreleased ways might be no more than a curiosity to collectors that does little to connect Prince to a new generation of fans the lifeblood of any legacy act as established fans are lost to natural attrition.

Prince: died intestate with no clear plans for the future of his legacy and $300 m fortune Photograph: REX/ Shutterstock

Its not sufficient, to quote The Smiths Paint a Vulgar Picture, to: Re-issue, re-package, re-package/ Re-evaluate the sungs/ Double-pack with a photograph/ Extra track and a tacky badge. Households often push for this short-term tactic but it can quickly drain a legacy, leaving little behind, said Jampol. Simply putting out best of compilations can end up diminishing an estates value. You can go into the vaults and make a bunch of albums but then its done, he said.

Listed foremost on Jam Incs Hippocratic Oath of Rock: Do no damage. Too often, the stewards of great legacy artists, in music and other artistic media, chase perceived possibilities without considering their impact upon the legacy theyre supposed to be looking after. Great musicians runs and images are priceless in the eyes of their fans, and every care must be taken to keep that connection intact.

What is required, says Jampol, in a not uncommon moment of management-marketing speak, is to locate the artists essence. Figure out what the magic is. Theres something that connects James Dean or Jim Morrison or Kurt Cobain or the Ramones to a 12 -year-old whether thats in 1957 or 2017. It could be a group of facets and then you have to find a way to be put that back into the pop culture in such a way that believable to a teenager, he said.

It may sound like gauzy marketing speak Jampol also lectures as an adjunct prof in music business at UCLA still, he has a point. Punk is 40years old, but questioning authority, being an foreigner , not caring about the social order are absolutely not dead.

The Sex Pistols: Punk may be 40 but questioning authority never get old Photo: Jorgen Angel/ Redferns via

Janis Joplin is a case in point. Jampol says he went to the family ahead of the documentary Little Girl Blue and the successful touring musical Janis and told them he wanted to position her as an icon of hope. But the story he wanted to tell, of being a bi-sexual heroin user might operate counter to how they want her story narrated.

Janis wore her heart on her sleeve. She made no bones about wanting to be loved. She wasnt beautiful. She didnt come from privilege, he said. She never compromised her vision to succeed. Yet she shattered the glass ceiling without ever compromising her values.

The same was true of Jim Morrison. I have a simple task to talk about everything. Janiss fans. Jim Morrisons alcoholism. I dont “re going to have to” manipulate the truth, I merely have to reveal it. But you have to understand the context.

Jampol learnt from Danny Sugerman( The Doorway one time director) how to negotiate the complex interpersonal relationships of a band. That begs the issues to, why does the rock and roll dream often end so acrimoniously?

Artists are very passionate about what they do, he said. But neither bands nor musicians have a great way to process issues, and issues come up over 20 or 30 years. If you dont have a way to process that, and you add in a few zeros of wealth and a dusting of celebrity that everybody wants Its a prescription for chaos and management headaches long into the future.

At the same time new sources of money are reinvigorating dead artists fortunes. Revenue streams now include musicals, museum indicates and documentaries. The Jackson documentary This Is It took $261 m at the US box office and as much as $400 m worldwide. Soon, we could see legacy acts appearing as holograms; the Beatles Vegas display brought in millions; Bob Marleys highly-dysfunctional family puts his name to dozens of products including boomboxes. Like Willie Nelson, the Marley clan has added marijuana to its range of products.

It seems the boulder legacy business is merely get larger. This week, the California promoter Goldenvoice announced a massive, pre-mortality rocknroll mega concert in October boast Bob Dylan, Rolling Stones, Neil Young, The Who, Paul McCartney and Roger Waters. With tickets for the three-day festival pegged at a basic $1,599, the acts are expected to take home around$ 7m a piece.

Jeff Jampol, speaking at a Billboard MECCA Conference in Los Angeles Photograph: M. Phillips/ WireImage

And now Jampol is about to get started on Otis Redding with a new biography and documentary. In September, there will be an evening of respect at the Big O ranch outside Memphis where Reddings widow and sons still live.

But clearly, there are still big jobs to be done. James Browns estate remains tied up in litigation; Jimi Hendrixs estate is notorious for saying no to every request. Jampol says the one thing you cannot do, is try to imagine what the artists would have supposed. Its not the issue and its an impossible question to answer.

Estates are not run for artist, or to imagine their wants, but to protect and advance their legacy, Jampol believes. But getting to that stage is seldom easy.

With asserts from alleged illegitimate child already surfacing, Prince estate could turn into a quagmire of litigation. Princes only full sibling, Tyka Nelson, has requested management of his affairs be placed with a special administrator, Bremer Trust, until a representative is appointed – or a will is situated. That could still happen. Six days after Michael Jackson died in 2009, his longtime lawyer John Branca filed a will, aiming endeavours by Jacksons mother to become his estates executor.

When a superstar dies, those left behind often guess first of the cash they are losing. They need to think more about posterity, said Jampol. Can we make any money is the last topic you want to ask. I like to animate and lift up the body. Once the artist is back in the cultural dialogue, non-respendable revenues follows.

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Is sleeping in your bra bad for your health? | Fox News

( – # 382229)

Consider this scenario: After run, you hit up happy hour with your friends, and you end up getting home style later than you planned. Like, style later. You’re so damn tired that you skip brushing your teeth( oops ), taking off your makeup( noooo !), and even removing your bra, before passing out in bed. Hey, it happens. But could the decision to forego freeing your boobs be harmful to your health?

Theres lots of info floating around the interwebs debating whether or not its safe to go braless during bedtimebut experts say there is absolutely no research to subsistence claims that wearing a bra 24/7 is bad for you.

RELATED: Apparently There Are 7 Different Types of BoobsWhich Do You Have ?

“There’s simply no evidence that any type of bra, or a tight-fitting bra, is harmful in any way, ” said Dr. Holly Pederson, director of medical breast services at the Cleveland Clinic.

One of the more common myths is that theres a link between wearing a bra at night and an increased risk of breast cancer. Like we said, theres nothing to back that up. In fact, a 2014 case study done at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle found that no facet of bra-wearing( including beaker sizing, frequency of wear, the underwire, or the age you started wearing one) had any link to breast cancer.

So , now that weve get that out of the style, are there any health benefits to wearing a bra while you sleep? Some females believe that wearing a bra day and night will maintain perkiness and a round shape. Pederson says that as our breast tissue is replaced by fat( which is softer) as we age, our boobs naturally become a bit droopy. Plus , not even the best bra can prevent gravity’s pulling. Womp, womp.

RELATED: 6 Breast Cancer Risks You Should Stop Believing This Instant

The bottom line: If you feel OK without a bra on at night, then let those girls be free. If you have a larger chest and feel more comfortable with your boobs procured in place, then that’s also OK. Usually, a soft, cotton bra will leave fewer lines than a wired push-up, so opt for something that will help you relax during sleep, and know your lovely lady lumps are safe either way.

This article originally appeared on .

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Bernie Sanders On Donald Trump’s Discovery That Health Care Is ‘So Complicated’: LOL

Sen. Bernie Sanders( I-Vt .) seemed flabbergasted on Monday when President Donald Trump claimed that nobody knew health care could be so complicated.

Trump met with health insurance executives and discussed Republicans efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, apparently only now becoming aware that the party hasnt been able to come up with a scheme because health care is an unbelievably complex subject.

Later that evening, when CNNs Anderson Cooper asked Sanders to respond, the senator laughed and shook his head, remembering the long legislative combats it took for progressives to pass the ACA.

Well, some of us who were sitting on the health education committee, who went to meeting after satisfying after meeting, who heard from dozens of people, who remained up night after night trying to figure out this thing yeah, we got a clue, Sanders said. When you provide health care in a nation of 320 million people, yeah, it is very, very complicated.

The senator laid into the GOP for repeatedly delaying introducing a replacing, despite pledging for years to repeal the law.

Maybe now, maybe the president and some of the Republican understand[ that] you cant be extended beyond the rhetoric, he said. Were going to repeal the Affordable Care Act, were going to repeal Obamacare, and everything will be wonderful! A little more complicated than that.

Trump on Tuesday morning reiterated his discovery about the issue.

You know, health care is a very complex subject, he said on Fox and Friends. If you do this, it affects nine different things. If you do that, it affects 15 different things.

But Trump claimed that he has a really terrific replacing scheme in the works.

Its going to be something thats going to be really respected, he said.

When asked on Monday about Trumps presidency so far, Sanders said he was stunned, really, every day.

I mean, this is the president of the United States. We have been debating health care in this country for 30 years, and he says, Gee, who knew how complicated it was? Sanders said. Hes perhaps the only person in this country who doesnt know how complicated it is to provide health care for the American people.

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Republican Already Have A New Health Care Proposal, And Twitter Is Pissed

Barely an hour and a half after it became apparent that the Republican health care replacement bill, the Better Care Reconciliation Act( BCRA) wouldn’t pass, Senate Republican leaders were already trying to figure out how they could salvage their endeavor at health care reform.

And according to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, the best route to do that is to wipe the board clean and start from scratch.

In a statement released soon after two Republican senators announced that they would not vote in support of the BCRA, McConnellsaid that the Senate would vote on a repeal of the Affordable Care Act( ACA ), better known as Obamacare, and figure out the replacement proportion later.

In the coming days, the Senate will vote to take up the House bill with the first amendment in order being what a majority of the Senate has already supported in 2015 and that was vetoed by then-President Obama: a repeal of Obamacare with a two year delay to provide for a stable transition period to a patient-centered health systems that devotes Americans access to quality, affordable care.

In short, Congress would take away the existing health care regulations, with an IOU pinky-swear promise to come up with something better in future, despite not being able to do so now.

It’s the same plan that President Trump has espoused, including in a tweet shortly after the end of the news broke.

But on Twitter, some people were already calling out the idea.

Some pointed out that that two-year deadline conveniently comes after the 2018 midterm elections

in 2018, all the seats in the House of Representatives and 34 seats in the Senate will be up for reelection.

Some people thought that McConnell should just give up already

And some were just wondering how we could be rid of the whole thing.

In a very topical context, as well.

What’s High Valyrian for all bills must die?

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