For two decades, Florence Williams could sit on her porch at night and watch the alpenglow on the Rocky Mountains. Then she moved from remote Colorado to Washington, DC, and started noticing the changes.
I felt disoriented, overwhelmed, depressed, she writes in her recent book, The Nature Fix . My intellect had difficulty focusing. I couldnt finish thoughts and I wasnt keen to get out of bed.
Williams was suffering, she says, from nature withdrawal. She spent the next three years digging into the science of how nature works on our brains. In short, it builds us more relaxed, more creative, and more socially connected. She traveled to Japan and Finland, the deserts of Utah and the urban woods of Singapore, to examine just how much we stand to gain by bring nature back into our lives.
At a period when more than half of all humans live in cities, the influence of the natural environment is at a low ebb, while our understanding of the great importance holds growing. In a recent visit to the Grist offices, Williams “was talkin about a” how writing this book led her to appreciate the role nature can play in our personal lives , not to mention our politics. ( This conversation has been edited and condensed in the interests of clarity .)
So many writers and philosophers and scientists have evangelized for nature, but we still dont attempt it out as much as we should. Why are we so bad at remembering that we actually like going outside ?
The science has shown that, although we think we like nature, we undervalue how much it helps ushow good it induces us feel. Theres this vicious cycle: We dont spend enough time in nature to let us know how good it attains us feel, and then because we dont know how good it builds us feel we dont expend enough time in nature.
Do people in other countries have a different relationship to nature ?
I expended a lot of time in Northern Europe, especially Scandinavia. I think in a lot of those places, the stress aspect is at the forefront. Scientists and the medical community are running really hard on preventative medicine: how to prevent depression and suicide, obesity, chronic illness. Well-being, especially mental health, is the priority for them.
Whereas, in the United States, I think theres more of those who are interested in the opposite: Be more productive, more efficient, more creative.
The book opens with you in a national park when your telephone beepsnot exactly a scene out of Walden Pond. Why arent you telling people to trench their devices like a nature purist would ?
I am a member of Generation X, so I do like my technology. And Im a realist: Im not going to tell people to hurl their telephones over a waterfall.
Cellphones enable a whole new style to gather data. I open The Nature Fix talking about an app called Mappiness; its part of a big data grab by a British economist to get millions of points of data about where people are during their days and how they feel about where they are.
It was a disclose exercise for me. I believed I got outside a fair sum. But my app only observed me outside 7 percent of the time. It turns out thats about the national averagewe tend to be outside for about 5 percent of our day. And that includes, like, walking to the bus stop. Its not quality time outside.
So it actually brought home this epic dislocation were living in: We dont distinguish how happy nature builds us. We think shopping makes us happy, or streaming Netflix, feeing ice creamand those things do make us happy, but we get a tremendous boost from being outside in a natural environment.
Some of the person or persons you be talking about are examining how to get the benefits of naturestrapping on a virtual reality headset or painting everything greenwithout actually going to get nature. Do you find that troubling ?
I understand the drive to offer nature to people who cant get at it on their own. However, I think if we make it too easy to never leave your sofa, then thats a number of problems. All of our senses interact with nature. Theres no way that virtual reality is, at this phase, ticking all the boxes.
There seems to be a dose curve for nature: For the most component, the more time you expend in a nature environment, the very best youre going to feel.
If its a potted plant and thats all you can get from your deskgreat. Look at it every once in a while, look at the view out your window. But if you can actually sit outside in your backyard and hear the birdsong and feel the grass in your toesand occasionally go over into the deep wildernessI think some genuinely profound things can start to happen to your brain, and to your worldview.
In Washington, DC, your home base, tree covering has declined from approximately 50 percent of the city in 1950 to 36 percentage today. Can we blame any of the problems in our nations capital on the lack of trees ?
Yeah, I want to start a campaign to bring potted plants into Congress.[ chuckles]
I suppose all those congressional leaders need to go on a little field trip. I once interviewed the Obama White House Chief of Staff, Dennis McDonaugh, who said some of his most productive meetings with Republican leaders took place on bike rides in Virginia. So theres definitely something to the social connections that get forged when youre outside and participating in a common endeavor.
I was luck to grow up close to Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmstead. People understand now that he was sort of a genius when it came to spatial organisation: where to put trees and paths and bridges and boulders. Whats less known about him is how prescient he was in understanding the connections between green space and democracy. He genuinely believed that parks were necessary for the mental health of everyone in cities, all walkings of life, and that parks could provide this great experimental space for the melting pot that we are.
He also advocated National Parks and public lands for the same reasons. So I think its particularly poignant and timely that now, when republic feelings threatened, public lands are also perhaps threatened.
How can we keep abreast our time in nature without moving to an isolated, sprawling, suburb ?
I wanted to visit the future, so I went to Singapore. Thats the third densest country on countries around the world. Were already at the halfway phase of more people living in cities than not living in them. Two billion more people will live in cities by 2030. And when you get to Singapore, its high rise upon high rise upon high rise. Yet, in the last 15 years, the green cover in Singapore has increased from 35 percent to 50 percent, despite two million more residents, because they have really prioritized integrating nature into the urban fabric.
The builds thereand this is where you really require good planners and good architectsincorporate vertical gardens into residential towers, offices. I suppose our institutions need to take this on, especially schools. Where I live, merely 10 percentage of children get the recommended recess day. Which is appalling, because we know that children need this time to run around and have exploratory free play in order to merely pay attention later in the day.
Kids in Finland, who have the highest exam scores in the world, get 15 minutes of recess for every 45 minutes of class hour. And the teachers are like, well, duh, of course we do that. Because otherwise the children cant pay attention and cant sit still. Yet when you talk about why Finland has these exam ratings, that almost never gets raised.
Were living in the largest mass migration in history, the movement to cities. At the same period, its the movement indoorsand that has these tremendous public health outcomes that were just beginning to understand.
Whats your best piece of advice ?
If you have kids, the most important thing you can do is get your children outside often enough to develop their love for nature. You will be giving them a gift they will have their entire lives.
In words of yourself, similar advice: Go outside more often than you think you wishes to! You will reap the rewards in increased mood, increased social connection in your relationships. But I wouldnt beat yourself up if you cant do it all the time. Just be open to understanding there are days in your life you might require this connection more than other days. I think that especially if youre struggling with depression, or youre struggling with grief, consider the natural world as one of your interventions.